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Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced and usually defined by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The term hypoglycemia literally means "low blood sugar". Hypoglycemia can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose as fuel to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). Derangements of function can range from vaguely "feeling bad" to coma and (rarely) death. Low blood sugar can arise from many conditions, and can occur at any age.

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A common grouping of symptoms of thyroid problems, Hypothyroidism is the disease state caused by insufficient thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. There are several distinct causes for chronic hypothyroidism, the most common being Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease where the body's own antibodies fight the cells of the thyroid. It is named after the Japanese physician, Hakaru Hashimoto, who first described it in 1912. It is four times more common among women than men, and runs in families, with the HLADR5 gene most strongly implicated (conferring a relative risk of 3) in the UK. The genes implicated vary in different ethnic groups.

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Another common grouping of symptoms of thyroid problems, Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis or "fast thyroid gland") is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) and free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. Major causes in humans are Graves' disease (the most common etiology with 70-80%), toxic thyroid adenoma, toxic multinodular goitre, and subacute thyroiditis.

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Ord's Thyroiditis

Ord's Thyroiditis is a disease similar to Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, although it is associated with a reduced thyroid size. This form of autoimmune thyroiditis is more common in European countries. It is named after the physician W. M. Ord, who first described it in 1877 and again in 1888 . It is more common among women than men.

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Graves Disease

Graves disease is a form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid gland, being the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid). Also known in the English-speaking world simply as Graves' disease, it occurs most frequently in women (8:1 compared to men) of middle age. Symptoms include fatigue, weight loss and rapid heart beat. Because similar antibodies to those stimulating the thyroid also affect the eye, eye symptoms are also commonly reported. Treatment is with medication that reduces the production of thyroid hormone (thyroxin), or with radioactive iodine if refractory.

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Goitre ( goiter )

A goitre (or goiter) (Latin struma) is a swelling in the neck (just below adam's apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. The most common cause for goitre in the world is iodine deficiency.

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Low Testosterone

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. It is the principal male sex hormone and the "original" anabolic steroid.

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Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels), especially after eating. All types of diabetes mellitus share similar symptoms and complications at advanced stages. Hyperglycemia itself can lead to dehydration and ketoacidosis. Longer-term complications include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis), retinal damage with eventual blindness, nerve damage and eventual gangrene with risk of amputation of toes, feet, and even legs.

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