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Pneumonia Basics

Pneumonia (the ancient Greek word for lungs) is defined as an infection involving the alveoli of the lungs. It occurs in patients of all age groups, but young children and the elderly, as well as immunocompromised and immune deficient patients, are especially at risk. Causal therapy is with antibiotics.

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Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, and clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaceae. It can cause pneumonia although it more commonly implicated in hospital-acquired urinary tract and wound infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. It is an increasing problem on hospitals because of the evolution of antibiotic resistant strains.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. It was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the 1880s, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies.

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Jiroveci Pneumonia

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia which is caused by a microorganism called Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii). It is relatively rare in normal, immunocompetent people but common among people infected with HIV (the virus which causes AIDS). In that population, before the advent of effective treatment, it was a common immediate cause of death, and can still be the first indication of AIDS, though it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200/mm?.

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Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium, in the class Mollicutes. This class of organisms lack a peptidoglycan cell wall present on all other firmicute bacteria. Instead, it has a three layer cell membrane which incorporates cholesterol compounds, similar to eukaryotic cells. Lacking a cell wall, these organisms are resistant to the effects of penicillins and other beta-lactam antibiotics, which act by disrupting the bacterial cell wall.

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Aspiration Pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of pneumonia that develop when gastric contents, food, saliva, or nasal secretions are aspirated into the bronchial tree. Depending on the acidity of the aspirate, a chemical pneumonitis develops, and bacterial pathogens (including anaerobic bacteria) further add to the inflammation.

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